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Ecosystem services | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ecosystem services 00:01:05 1 History 00:03:33 2 Definition 00:04:35 3 Four categories 00:05:03 3.1 Supporting services 00:05:27 3.2 Provisioning services 00:06:20 3.3 Regulating services 00:06:43 3.4 Cultural services 00:08:35 4 Examples 00:12:48 5 Ecology 00:16:03 5.1 Redundancy hypothesis 00:17:36 5.2 Portfolio effect 00:18:43 6 Economics 00:21:59 7 Management and policy 00:25:51 7.1 Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) 00:27:51 8 Estuarine and coastal ecosystem services 00:29:29 8.1 Regulating services 00:29:55 8.1.1 Climate regulation 00:30:54 8.1.2 Waste treatment and disease regulation 00:31:48 8.1.3 Buffer zones 00:32:45 8.2 Provisioning Services 00:33:02 8.2.1 Marine products 00:33:53 8.2.2 Fresh water 00:34:26 8.2.3 Raw materials 00:35:29 8.2.4 Biochemical and genetic resources 00:36:29 8.3 Cultural services 00:36:50 8.3.1 Inspirational 00:37:33 8.3.2 Recreation and tourism 00:38:00 8.3.3 Science and education 00:38:33 8.4 Supporting services 00:39:00 8.4.1 Nutrient cycling 00:39:48 8.4.2 Biologically mediated habitats 00:40:39 8.4.3 Primary production 00:41:09 9 Businessworld 00:43:52 10 Land use change decisions Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ecosystem services are the many and varied benefits that humans freely gain from the natural environment and from properly-functioning ecosystems. Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. Collectively, these benefits are becoming known as 'ecosystem services', and are often integral to the provisioning of clean drinking water, the decomposition of wastes, and the natural pollination of crops and other plants. While scientists and environmentalists have discussed ecosystem services implicitly for decades, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) in the early 2000s popularized the concept. There, ecosystem services are grouped into four broad categories: provisioning, such as the production of food and water; regulating, such as the control of climate and disease; supporting, such as nutrient cycles and oxygen production; and cultural, such as spiritual and recreational benefits. To help inform decision-makers, many ecosystem services are being assigned economic values.


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Ecology:   |  biodiversity  |  habitat  |  niche  |  niche construction  |  biome  |  biosphere  |  individual ecology  |  population ecology  |  ecosystem  |  keystone species
Pollution:   |  air pollution  |  light pollution  |  littering  |  noise  |  radioactive  |  water pollution
Sustainability:   |  social  |  economic  |  environment  |  organizations  |  sustainable development  |  sustainable life
Environment:   |  environmental education  |  recycling  |  environmental health  |  conservation  |  animals  |  forests  |  ecosystems  |  clean energy
Climate-change:   |  atmosphere  |  cfcs  |  greenhouse gases  |  NASA  |  glaciers  |  carbon emission  |  solar output